A village under a city

Since the beginning of this century, especially since 1949, numerous findings from Roman times have been discovered and excavated. Among these were e.g. a market square in the area of the modern Federal Chancellery, a Roman street, which follows exactly the Adenauerallee 140 cm deeper than the modern street, remains of magnificent houses and graves, a well-preserved basement underneath the Haus der Geschichte and, and, and ... Altogether these findings convey the image of a complete ancient settlement from the 1st - 3rd century, the so-called "vicus Bonnensis".

In 43 AD Bonn presumably became the location of a Roman legion. Like all the other fortresses the fortress in Bonn also had a canabae, the so-called suburbs, which essentially supported the legion. In addition to that a small settlement, the "vicus Bonnensis", was built towards the end of the 1st century. Quite obviously this settlement was a town planned on a drawing board, divided into several insulae, i.e. several quarters. The houses - mostly 5-15 m wide and 30-40 m long - were lined up with the narrow front of their entrances facing the street. They were usually used in a "multifunctional" way, e.g. as a linving-room or commercially as pubs, workshops... Behind the houses there were long plots of land, where they kept domestic animals and useful plants. The inhabitants made their living as craftsmen supporting the fortress of the legion. In Bonn like in Rome the highest god was Iupiter with his wife Iuno. In addition to them other gods and goddesses were worshipped who emerged from the fusion of Germanic and Roman gods. Especially the cult of the matrones was very popular. In the middle of the 3rd century the "vicus Bonnensis" was deserted. Why it was surrendered, still remains in the dark, perhaps it is because of raids of the Allemannen. The Roman fortress existed 50 more years before it was closed. Today after 1800 years, this "village" has been rediscoverd and has been put under the protection of historic buildings and monuments, because it is here that "the roots of the city of Bonn can be looked for".

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